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Why use referencing?

is used to acknowledge other people’s work used to create your own work. This
can include such things as an idea, exact words, artwork, a diagram, an image
or a table that is used in a piece of writing or non-written text. Referencing
shows respect for other people’s intellectual rights and avoids plagiarism. It also
enables the reader to follow up on the work of other authors and creators referred
to in the piece of work.

What system of referencing should be used?

There are
a number of referencing styles available for use. Different
institutions/publishers use their own style and/or variation of a referencing
system, so slight differences may be observed. Detailed descriptions of these systems
are generally made available via the institution/publisher’s website. Some
examples of these sites are listed at the end of this document.

purpose of all referencing systems is to acknowledge the work of others and to
enable readers/viewers to find the referenced material. Referencing of new
source types, such as emerging technologies, use the same basic principles and are
consistent with the referencing style being used.

It is
easier for students and teachers if a school adopts and teaches a consistent referencing
system. The examples of referencing used in this guide are based on the Harvard
referencing system, also known as the Author–Date system.

What if students
already use a different system of referencing?

included here are intended as a guide only. Other approaches to referencing
might already be in place in some schools. They are also appropriate to use.

The main
advice is that the style should remain consistent throughout a piece of work.

Referencing style

style can require three types of acknowledgment:

1)     In-text
acknowledgement (see Part A below)

a)     When quoting
another’s words, the indentation of text (for sentences, see Part A, 1) or use of
quotation marks (for a phrase, line, or two, see Part A, 2) as well as brief

b)     To identify
another’s ideas, words, artwork, diagrams, images or tables, brief reference (author,
date, page number/s) immediately following the text (see Part A, 3)

2)     Footnotes and
endnotes (see Part B below)

Footnotes and endnotes are easy to use and do
not break the flow of text.  They are
used in literature, history, and the arts where source materials may have
lengthy reference information. 
Generally, footnotes are used for a small number of citations and
endnotes for large numbers or lengthy endnotes. Consecutive superscript numbers
are placed in the text and corresponding footnotes are located at the bottom of
the same page as the text to which they refer. 
End notes are placed at the end of a chapter or the end of the complete
piece of work.

3)     Reference
list and/or bibliography (see Part C below)

Place at the end of your work. It should contain
full source details. Use the detailed guidelines in Part D to assist in
creating the list.

Referencing and
word count

Refer to
the SACE Word-count Policy.

The word count includes headings, direct quotations, and footnotes that are used as
explanatory notes. The word count does not include the title/question page, the
contents page, the reference list or bibliography (including footnotes or
in-text references that are used to list author, date, and page numbers), and
appendices. A reference list or bibliography that is required for an assessment
task is not included in the word-count, but will be assessed for accuracy and

How to reference new types of sources

new source types (e.g. web-references, blogs, Twitter) using the same
principles you would use to reference the more traditional materials.

guide sets out the basic principles of referencing and gives a variety of
examples. However, if your particular reference still doesn’t match any of the
examples given here, follow the basic principles and format as for more traditional
types using this guide.

Sections following in these guidelines

Part A –
In-text acknowledgement

Part B –
Footnotes and endnotes

Part C –
Reference List and/or Bibliography

Part D –
Examples of citing various types of sources

Part E –
Acknowledging the use of AI

Part A     In-text acknowledgment

When quoting
in running text, always include:



number or location reference where specific text is referred to.


1. How to quote sentences from another author

Note: You must keep this to a minimum to
ensure that what you submit for assessment is your own work.  This is used in cases of 30 words or more.

Set out the quotation in a separate block
of text, by:

· Indenting from the margin


Introduce a
long quotation with a colon


using a smaller font size or italicising the



At the time of
the European colonisation the Australian landscape was portrayed as untouched
wilderness. In fact, Indigenous Australians were using various techniques,
particularly fire, to manage the land:

Leave a
line above and below the quote


Indent from the



… the
explorers were not pushing out into wilderness, they were trekking through
country that had been in human occupation for hundreds of generations. It was
land that had been skilfully managed and shaped by continuous and creative use
of fire
. (Reynolds 2000, p.20)

author, year of publication and page number at the end of the quote.  If the date is unknown use n.d.


Use a
different font than the rest of the text (e.g., make smaller or italicise)







2. How to quote a few words from an author

Include the words in the normal setting of
the sentence.  This is used in cases of
less than 30 words.



Add page number after the quote, plus author and
year of publication if not referred to earlier in the sentence.


Reynolds (2000) argues that the Australian
landscape was ‘skilfully managed and shaped’ (p. 20) by Aboriginal people
through the use of fire.

Use single
quotation marks around the quoted words.



3. How to
acknowledge another author’s ideas without quoting their exact words

paraphrasing another person’s words — putting them into your own words — you
must still acknowledge your source because you are referring to someone else’s
ideas or claims.

When referring to an idea or works that are
not your own, you must back up your claim with documentary evidence.


Refer to
the author in your sentence.


with year of publication and page number in brackets.




More recent studies, including
those by Ward and Foot (1999, p.6), note increasing dissatisfaction with how
the taxation system handles superannuation.


PART B      Footnotes and endnotes


In text

The information that Columbus wanted most
was: Where is the gold? 1


Corresponding footnote at the bottom of
the page or endnote

  1. Howard
    Zinn, A People’s History of the
    United States: 1492 – Present
    (New Tork: Harper Collins
    Publishers, 2005), 2











When referencing a source for the first time the footnote
or endnote should be a full citation, including:

  • Author’s
    first name, then surname, title of article, book etc.(in italics), editors
    where applicable, publisher name and location, and year published
  • exact page numbers
    should be given if the reference is a direct quotation, a paraphrase, an
    idea, an image, chart, graphic or visual support direct from the source


For subsequent
references, include:

  • author’s
  • exact page


Latin abbreviations can be used to simplify
subsequent references

  • op.cit.,
    meaning ‘in the work cited’ can be used with the author’s name and page
    number where a full citation has already been given.
  • Ibid.,
    meaning ‘in the same place’ can be used when the citation is the same as
    the previous one, with page numbers included if these are different.


Zinn, A People’s History of the
United States: 1492 – Present
(New York: Harper Collins Publishers,
2005), 2





Zinn, A People’s History of the
United States: 1492 – Present
(New York: Harper Collins Publishers,
2005), 2

Geise, American History to 1877 (New
York: Barron’s Educational Services, 1992), 4

op.cit., 14


Part C    Reference List and/or Bibliography

reference list is a full list of all publications referred to in the work. It
is placed at the end. A bibliography differs in that it also includes
publications that are not specifically referred to in the work. It is also
placed at the end.

Order of elements of a citation (i.e. a reference
to a source)

  1. Author and Date (The Harvard or Author-Date style
    of referencing).
  2. The details of the
    citation should be organised in the order shown in the table below. Include
    only what is appropriate for your source type.
  3. The basic elements to
    use are shown in bold in the
    table below. When organising your citation look for the basic elements
    first and then use them in the order shown in the table.
  4. Finally clarify your
    citation with the other elements if they apply to your source.




(in italics if published), or
‘Article’, Journal, or
‘Chapter’, in Book

Editor /
translator / compiler

(if identified as 2nd, 3rd, revd, etc.)

no. / Volume title (if applicable)

publication details (e.g. day, month)

title (if applicable) and volume number within series if series is numbered

(e.g. DVD, CD-ROM, podcast but not
book, Internet, as this will be self-evident)


number or numbers (if a chapter in a book or article in newspaper/journal)




Referencing guides often use slightly
different punctuation. You should use the same punctuation style consistently
throughout your work.

A style that is simple to follow and
widely used in Australia is that described in the Style manual for authors,
editors and printers
(2002), in which the elements are divided by a comma
and finished with a full stop.

of citations

Order the list alphabetically by the first
word or words of the entry, ignoring definite and indefinite articles (a, an,




Part D    Examples of citing various types of sources

of source

to cite in text

to list in the References or Bibliography







(Clark & Cook 1983)

Clark, IF & Cook, BJ (eds), 1983,
Geological science: Perspectives of the earth, Australian Academy of
Science, Canberra.

No author appears on
title page. List by editor(s).

Book etc., with four or more authors

(Henkin et al. 2006)

Henkin, RE, Bova, D, Dillehay, GL,
Halama, JR, Karesh, SM, Wagner, RH & Zimmer, MZ 2006, Nuclear medicine, 2nd edn, Mosby
Elsevier, Philadelphia.

‘Et al.’ is short for et alia, meaning ‘and others’.

Book chapter

(Kanengoni 1997)

Kanengoni, A 1997, ‘Effortless
tears’, in Under African skies, ed. C Larson, Payback Press,
Edinburgh, pp. 289-295.

title in single quotation marks

signified with ‘ed.’

numbers of the chapter.


Book with government author

(SA. DEH 2007)

or (and this will require cross-reference in References)

(No Species loss, 2007)                 


(SA. DENR 1995)

South Australia. Department for
Environment and Heritage 2007, No species loss: A nature conservation
strategy for South Australia
2007–2017, DEH, Adelaide.
No species loss 2007 see South Australia. Department for
Environment and Heritage (2007).

South Australia. Department of
Environment and Natural Resources 1995, South Australia: Our water our
, DENR, [Adelaide].

Name of
government and government body

Date of
publication [or most likely date in square brackets, if none given]


author (if named)


and place.

Sometimes the publisher organisation
is also the author.


Encyclopaedias and

If there is no author include the
information in parentheses in the text:

… (Encyclopaedia

Otherwise, treat as a newspaper

Brown.J (ed) 2006, Encyclopaedia of Bicycles, vols 3-5,
XY Press, Hawthorn Vic.


title (italics)

edition, if not first

‘heading’, if there is one






Journal article

Norton et al. (2001) discuss …

Norton, K, Dollman, J, Klanarong, S
& Robertson, I 2001, ‘Playing safe: Children in sport’, Sport Health, vol. 19, no. 3, pp.

Where there are four
or more authors:

cite the first name only in the text, followed by ‘et al.’ (et alia – and others)

list all authors in the reference list.


Journal article that can
be accessed online

Abel (2001) presents …

Abel, EL 2001, ‘The gin
epidemic: Much ado about what?’ Alcohol
and Alcoholism
, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 401–5, accessed 11 January 2010,

Check that
the URL is current. If the article is no longer available online but you have
previously accessed it, state the date you previously accessed it.

Newspaper article

Oaten (2002) describes how to …

Oaten, C 2002, ‘Open your house to the sun’, The Advertiser, 6 September, p. 31.

article title in single quotation

newspaper title in italics

date and month of article page






Television program, broadcast

A Lateline episode (ABC
2012) reports how the homeland of residents of very low lying mud islands is
in trouble.  

ABC 2012, Lateline, television program, ABC, 7 December.


Include title of program, date watched/listened and, if available:

‘episode title’ (in single quotes)
and number

names of
key performers, if relevant


date of original broadcast.

Film / DVD

In the film Escape to Grizzly Mountain (Dalesandro 1999) …

Dalesandro, A (dir) 1999, Escape to Grizzly Mountain, motion picture, 20th
Century Fox





special credit to director
at the end of the citation.








Rainfall and Temperature records show …
(Australian Government BOM 2015).

Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology, Rainfall and Temperature Records, accessed
4th June 2015, <>.



author, or
person/organisation responsible for the website 

title of the page (from
the browser’s title bar) in italics

date: last update,
copyright date, or n.d. if no date is available



Website: article

Higher temperatures and melting
glaciers are changing mountain ecosystems (FAO 2007).

Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations 2007, ‘Climate change causing species
disappearance in mountain areas’, FAO NewsRoom 11 December, accessed 18
December 2007, <>.



Website: Television






… (Four
Corners 2004)…




Corners 2004, City limits: Australia’s
urban water crisis
, 18 October, extended broadband version, ABC
Television, accessed 11 January 20,




Include also:



access date

enough information that, if the URL
changes, the reader can still search for it.



video file

Japan came under attack again … (‘Japan under fire …’,

‘Japan under fire for whaling’, 2007, NineMSN News, 18
December, daily views 1018, Windows Media Player video file,

enough information to be able to find the source again if the URL changes.

YouTube video

Rider’s Urban Sprawl YouTube
video shows how …


Rider (2009) shows how …


J 2009, Urban Sprawl: A Sim City 4
, video, accessed 11 January 2010, <>.


author / producer (if identifiable)




person who posted the video is not necessarily the author or producer.


Include information in parentheses:

… (Bun 2008)

Or work it
into the text:

Bun (2008) reports on …

Bun, M 2008, ‘Rising sea levels’, presented by
R. Williams, Ockham’s Razor,
Radio National, podcast, 31 August, accessed 11 January 2010, <

Set out as for journal
article or chapter in a book.

The word ‘website’ is not included because the
publisher’s name is repeated in acronym in the URL.


In an email letter to the writer 6 May
2007, the Mayor of the City of XXX said …


The Mayor of the City of XXX (email message to writer, 15
April, 2007) promised that …

Researching Sport,
personal communication, 15 April, 2007.




name of the list

date of the posting

archived, include the URL and access date.


(Barry 2010)

Barry, G 2010, ‘Earth meanders: Resisting global ecological change’, Climate Ark, 5 January 2010, viewed 29
March 2010, <http://www…….>.


author of entry

title of article

title of weblog

type of website, i.e. blog


access date

If paraphrasing or direct quotation use as for
other source types.

Social Networking Sites


In a Twitter post on January 12, 2013,

Legg (@JLegg) wrote, ’Present government
has no idea. Need to listen to people’.

or End  note

James Legg, January 12, 2013, 12.16 p.m., Twitter post,

James Legg January 12, 2013, 12.16 p.m., Twitter post,


name of poster

date of posting

access time



Phone Applications

Include information in parentheses:

..(Skyscape 2013)

Skyscape 2013, Skyscape Medical Resources (Version 1.17.42)
[Mobile application software],retrieved from <>.


Text Generative AI (such as ChatGPT)

Include the reference in parentheses:

… (Open AI, 2023)…

Or work it into the text:

ChatGPT named four films that were influenced by
Hamlet: The Lion King, Rosencrantz & Guildenstern are Dead,
The Bad Sleep Well and Strange Brew (Open AI, 2023).

Open AI (2023) “Which films have been influenced by Shakespeare’s
Hamlet” ChatGPT (May 8, 2023) <>


the developer of the AI tool

the name of the tool

what prompt was entered for
that information

the date that the text was

If you
need to reference multiple prompts add a letter of the alphabet to the end of
the year in your in-text reference and bibliography eg. (Open AI, 2023a). This
is so your prompts can be connected clearly to the reference.

Image Generative AI (such as Dall-E)

Include the reference and prompt in parentheses in
the text or as a caption for the image:

…(Open AI, “Dog riding a skateboard”, 2023)…

Or work it into the text:

I started with a reference image using Dall-E
with the prompt “dog riding a skateboard” (Open AI, 2023).

Open AI (2023) “Dog riding a skateboard” Dall-E (May 8, 2023) <>


developer of the AI tool

name of the tool

prompt was entered for that image

date that the image was generated.

If you need to reference multiple prompts add a letter of
the alphabet to the end of the year in your in-text reference and





Interviews (unpublished)

information into the text, e.g.

I interviewed Jay Smith in March this year, and asked him
what advice he has to give young tennis players …

In an interview conducted on 3 March 2008, Mr J. Smith
stated that …

I’ll call him David. That’s not his real
name, but he sleeps in the parklands and agreed to talk to me about how he


Smith, J 2008,
Interview by [your name], Adelaide, 3 March.

Interview with a homeless person, 2008, by [your name],
6 June.

If listing in references:

treat interviewed person as author

make the context clear obtain
interviewee’s permission to use the interview in your work.


surveys sent and received by email or telephone conversations)

See Interviews (unpublished)

In a survey communicated by email on 10 July
2011, the Manager of Café Three at Salisbury, Mr Peter Jones, indicated
that …


In a telephone conversation on 10 July 2011,
Mr Peter Jones, the Manager of Café Three at Salisbury, highlighted
the …


P 2011, surveyed by [your name], Adelaide, 10 July.

Jones, P (2011), survey prepared by [your name] on…

If listing in references:

treat person who completed the
survey as author

make the context clear

obtain permission from the person completing the survey
to use their responses in your work.


Paintings, sculptures, photographs, other

Include information in parentheses:

… (Pollock Blue poles, 1952, National
Gallery of Australia, Canberra) …

Or work it into the text:

Controversial at the time it was purchased, Pollock’s
1952 painting Blue poles, hanging in the National Gallery of
Australia, illustrates …


Artworks and Live performances that cannot be
easily recovered should be referred to in detail in-text.

Images of recoverable artworks should reference
where it is located using standard 

SACB 2009, Image of cat and pig, SACB, 10 June, viewed

 27 July 2013,



name of artist

title (italics for paintings and sculptures, quotation marks
for photographs)

name of

Live performances (theatre, music, dance)

Include information in parentheses:

… (Much ado about nothing,
directed by J Bell 2011, opening scene)


Bell, J (dir.) 2011, Much
ado about nothing
, by W Shakespeare, theatre performance, 8
April- 14 May 2011, Bell Shakespeare Company, Drama Theatre, Sydney Opera
House, viewed 10 April 2011.


Poetry (classic)

Poetry lines:

[author first name / lastname] [Poem title],
verse [x], lines [x-xx]

Or work it
into the text:

Tennyson’s hero is unlike Homer’s; he has
no definite end in view (lines 57-64)

 James, K 1997,
‘Broken  tears’,  Pictures from Mars, ed.
C. Greene, Poetry Press, Edithburgh, SA, pp. 28-29.

If you quote from the introduction or notes, you should
list the edition in the reference list.



(Mason 1832)

Mason, J 1832, Map
of the countries lying between Spain and India,
1:8,000,000, Ordnance
Survey, London

If the cartographer is unknown:

Title of map


Scale of map


Place of


Part E          Acknowledging
the use of AI

When using generative AI in your work, you
should include an acknowledgement which lets the reader know which tools you
used and which prompts you entered. This is particularly important if you have
used AI tools in your work but not directly in a way that would require

When referencing AI tools you should:

  • Provide
    the detail of which technology was used
  • List the
    prompts that you have used and the date
  • What you
    did with the output of the prompts.

For example:

In my essay, I used Open AI’s ChatGPT ( to begin my search.
The prompts I used were:

  • What
    are the main themes of Hamlet (May 3, 2023)
  • Who are
    the main characters in Hamlet (May 3, 2023)
  • Which
    films have been influenced by Shakespeare’s Hamlet (May 8, 2023)
  • What connections
    are there between The Lion King and Hamlet (May 8, 2023)

These prompts were used to make a list of ideas
that I then refined to use for my essay.

References on which this advice is based

Chicago manual of style, 2003, 15th edn, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Style manual for authors, editors and
, 2002, 6th edn, revised by Snooks & Co., John Wiley
& Sons Australia, Milton, Qld.

Turabian, KL 2005, A manual for writers
of research papers, theses, and dissertations: Chicago style for students and
, 7th edn, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Monash University: Learn HQ, Acknowledging the use of generative artificial
intelligence <>

For more information

Most universities and libraries offer
information on Harvard Referencing on their websites. These are updated from
time to time. The websites listed below offer useful guides.

When accessing these guides, remember that
individual institutions adopt slight variations in their own ‘house style’, and
one might be slightly different to the next, particularly in punctuation. It is
more important to use one style consistently in your document, following the principles outlined in this guide (which
appear in all guides), than slavishly trying to follow the details of different
style guides.

  • Learning
    Connection, 2007, Referencing using
    the Harvard Author-Date System
    , (revd), University of South Australia,
    accessed 11 January 2010,
  • Library and Learning Development, 2007, University of Wollongong Author-Date
    (Harvard) Referencing Guide
    , University of Wollongong,
    11 January 2010,
  • Division
    of Teaching and Learning Services, 2007, Central Queensland University, Harvard (author-date) referencing guide,
    accessed 29 December 2011,,.
  • Griffith
    University Referencing Tool, nd., accessed 22 May 2014, <>

Further advice on footnotes and endnotes is
given in various places on the internet, including:

Department of Modern History at Macquarie University,

of South Australia,

New South
Wales Board of Studies ‘All My Own Work’ program




* This document was revised in June 2023

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